NISAR: ISRO, NASA jointly working Dual Frequency Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging Satellite

Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) of NASA are jointly working on the development of NASA-ISRO Synthetic Aperture Radar (NISAR), a Dual Frequency Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging Satellite.

Salient Features

  1. NISAR is a dual frequency (L & S Band) Radar Imaging Satellite. It will be the first radar imaging satellite to use dual frequency. It will be the world’s most expensive earth-imaging satellite till date, costing around $1.5 billion. It aims to study global environmental change and natural disasters.
  2. The L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar is being developed by JPL, while ISRO is developing S-band Synthetic Aperture Radar. The L and S band microwave. ISRO will be also responsible for design and development Spacecraft Bus ,data transmission system, spacecraft integration & testing.
  3. It will be launched using GSLV in year 2021. It will have mission life of 3 years. It is planned to be launched into a Sun-synchronous dawn to dusk orbit.
  4. Applications: Data obtained from this satellite will be useful for variety of applications, which include natural resources mapping and monitoring, estimating agricultural biomass over full duration of crop cycle, assessing soil moisture, monitoring of floods and oil slicks, coastal erosion, assessment of mangroves, surface deformation studies, ice sheet collapses and dynamics

Achievements of ISRO in 2017

  1. Record of launches 104 satellites: These satellites were launched in a single launch onboard PSLV-C37 in February 2017. These satellites include two Indian Cartosat-2 series satellites, two Indian Nano-Satellites, one Nano satellite from Indian University and 130 foreign satellites from 19 countries.
  2. 31 satellites Launched: These satellites were launched in a single launch on-board PSLV-C38 in June 2017.
  3. South Asia Satellite (GSAT-9): The 2230 kg satellite was launched by Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark-II (GSLV-F09) into its planned Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO) in May 2017. This was the fourth consecutive success achieved by GSLV carrying indigenously developed Cryogenic Upper Stage.
  4. First developmental flight of GSLV MkIII-D1: GSLV Mk-III is India’s heavy lift launch vehicle GSLV Mk-III. Its first test was successfully conducted in June 2017 from Satish Dhawan Space Centre, Sriharikota with launch of GSAT-19 satellite.


NISAR: ISRO, NASA jointly working Dual Frequency Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging Satellite

भारतीय अवकाश संशोधन संस्था (इस्रो) आणि नासाच्या जेट प्रोपल्शन लॅबोरेटरी (जेपीएल) संयुक्तपणे नासा-इस्त्रो सिंथेटिक ऍपर्चर राडार (एनआयएसएआर) आणि ड्युअल फ्रीक्वेन्सी सिन्टेटल ऍपर्चर राडार इमेजिंग उपग्रह च्या विकासावर काम करत आहे.

ठळक वैशिष्ट्ये:-

  1. निस्सार एक दुहेरी वारंवारता (एल अँड एस बॅण्ड) राडार इमेजिंग उपग्रह आहे. दुहेरी वारंवारता वापरण्यासाठी हा पहिला रडार इमेजिंग उपग्रह असेल.
  2. आजपर्यंत जगातील सर्वात महागडा पृथ्वी-इमेजिंग उपग्रह असेल, ज्यांची किंमत 1.5 अब्ज डॉलरच्या आसपास असेल.
  3. जागतिक पर्यावरण बदलांचा आणि नैसर्गिक आपत्तीचा अभ्यास करणे हा हेतू आहे.
  4. एल-बॅन्ड सिंथेटिक ऍपर्चर राडार जेपीएलद्वारे विकसित केले जात आहे, तर इस्रो एस-बँड सिन्थिअॅक्ट अॅपर्चर रडार विकसित करत आहे.
  5. एल आणि एस बँड मायक्रोवेव्ह इस्त्रो डिझाईन आणि विकासक्षेत्रासाठी अंतरिक्षकंपनी बस, डेटा ट्रान्समिशन सिस्टम, स्पेसक्रॅक इंटिग्रेशन व टेस्टिंग यासाठीही जबाबदार असेल.
  6. हे 2021 मध्ये GSLV वापरून सुरू करण्यात येईल.
  7. त्याचे 3 वर्षांचे मिशन जीवन असेल.

 

उपयोग
  1. या उपग्रहांद्वारे मिळालेली माहिती विविध ठिकाणी उपयुक्त ठरेल.
  2. ज्यामध्ये नैसर्गिक संसाधनांचे मॅपिंग आणि मॉनिटरिंग.
  3. पीक चक्र पूर्ण कालावधीत कृषि जैवसाहनांचा अंदाज करणे.
  4. मातीची आर्द्रता ठरवणे.
  5. पूरस्थितीचे निरीक्षण करणे.
  6. तटीय धूप कमी होणे.
  7. मैंग्रॉव्हचे मूल्यांकन.
  8. पृष्ठभाग कृतींचा अभ्यास.

 

2017 मध्ये इसरोची यश
  1. 104 उपग्रहांचे यशस्वी प्रक्षेपण:-
    1. उपग्रहांना पीएसएलव्ही-सी 37 मध्ये फेब्रुवारी 2017 मध्ये एका वेळी लाँच करण्यात आले.
    2. या उपग्रहांमध्ये दोन भारतीय कार्टोसॅट -2 उपग्रह प्रक्षेपण, दोन भारतीय नॅनो-उपग्रह, भारतीय विद्यापीठातून एक नॅनो उपग्रह आणि 130 परदेशी उपग्रह यांचा समावेश आहे.
  2. 19 विविध देशांचे 31 उपग्रह:- 
    1. जून 2017 मध्ये पीएसएलव्ही-सी 38 या एकाच उपग्रहाने प्रक्षेपित केले.
  3. दक्षिण एशिया उपग्रह (जीएसएटी -9):
    1. 223 किलो वजनाचा उपग्रह जीएसएलव्ही-एफ -09 ने मे 2017 मध्ये आपल्या नियोजित जिओसिन्क्रोनोसिस ट्रान्स्फर ऑर्बिट (जीटीओ) मध्ये प्रक्षेपित केले.
  4. जीएसएलव्ही एम 3 -डी 1:-
    1. ही जीएसएलव्हीद्वारे मिळविलेले चौथे यश स्वदेशी विकसित होणारे क्रायोजेनिक अपर स्टेज जीएसएलव्ही एमके 3 -डी 1 चे पहिले विकासात्मक फ्लाइट: जीएसएलव्ही एमके -3 हे भारतातील हेवी लिफ्ट प्रक्षेपण वाहन आहे.
    2. जीएसएटी - 19 उपग्रहाच्या लॉन्चिंगसह श्रीहरिकोटाच्या सतीश धवन अवकाश केंद्रापासून जून 2017 मध्ये यशस्वीरित्या यशस्वी चाचणी घेण्यात आली.


India to become fifth largest economy in 2018: Report

  1. According to recently released report titled 2018 World Economic League Table, India is set to overtake the United Kingdom and France to become the world’s fifth largest economy in 2018.
  2. The report was released by Centre for Economics and Business Research, an economics consultancy based in Britain. 

Key Highlights of Report

  1. India currently ranked seventh will overtake UK and France to become the world’s fifth largest economy in 2018 in US dollar terms and further move to third spot by 2032.
  2. Indian economy had hit three-year low in the first quarter of the current financial year 2017 due to demonetisation i.e. scraping high-value banknotes and implementation of Goods and Services Tax (GST).
  3. The growth had slumped to 5.7% for quarter ending June 2016 but had recovered slightly to 6.3% for quarter ending September 2017. Despite temporary setbacks, India’s economy still caught up with that of France and UK and in 2018 will overtake them.

Global economy

  1. Cheap energy and technology prices will boost the global economy in 2018. China is likely to overtake United States as the world’s largest economy by 2032.
  2. Britain will lag behind France over the next two years and it will again overtake France in 2020, because effects of Brexit on UK’s economy will be less than feared.
  3. Russia will fall to 17th place among world’s largest economies by 2032, from 11th place in 2017, mainly because of low commodity (oil) prices in international market and its excessive reliance on energy sector.


China successfully launches remote sensing satellites of Yaogan-30 project

  1. China has successfully launched remote sensing satellites to conduct electromagnetic environmental probes. They are part of third batch of the Yaogan-30 project. The number of launched satellites was not disclosed.
  2. They launched on board of Long March-2C carrier rocket from Xichang Satellite launch centre in the southwest Sichuan province. It was the 260th mission of the Long March rocket family.

Yaogan-30 project

  1. Yaogan-30 is Remote Sensing Satellite programme of China. The electro-optical digital imaging satellites  developed under it by China Academy of Space Technology (CAST).
  2. China claims that these satellites as intended for “scientific experiments, land survey, crop yield assessment, and disaster monitoring. Western security experts suspect that they are also used for military purposes.
  3. Remote sensing: It generally refers to use of sensor technologies to detect objects. The remote sensing satellites collect data by detecting energy reflected from Earth.


 Blue Flag pilot project launched for beach clean-up and development

  1. The Union Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change has launched pilot project ‘Blue Flag’ to develop and enhance standards of cleanliness on beaches.
  2. This information was given by Minister of State (MoS) in MoEFCC, Dr. Mahesh Sharma, in reply to a written question in Lok Sabha.
  3. The ‘Blue Flag’ is a certification by the Foundation for Environmental Education (FEE) that a beach, Marina or sustainable boating tourism operator, meets its stringent standards. Its purpose is to enhance standards of cleanliness, upkeep and basic amenities at beaches.
  4. Under the pilot project, each of coastal state/UT was requested to identify and nominate a beach, which is to be funded through ongoing Integrated Coastal Management Programme (ICMP).
  5. Till date, all the coastal states have nominated pilot beaches in their receptive territories including Goa. However, formal nominations are awaited from coastal UTs viz., Daman & Diu, Puducherry, Lakshadweep and Andaman & Nicobar.

Foundation for Environmental Education (FEE)

  1. The FEE is a non-governmental, non-profit organisation promoting sustainable development through environmental education. It was established in 1981. It is Headquartered at Copenhagen, Denmark.
  2. It is active through five programmes; Eco-Schools, Blue Flag, Young Reporters for Environment (YRE), Green Key and Learning about Forests (LEAF).


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